Lecture for ChD 606 Church Development Part VI
Lecture for ChD 606 Church Development Part VI
by Brother Macfonse Osmond, OSM
St. Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville, born in Cartagena, Spain, about 560 AD, the son of Severianus and Theodora. Brother of Saint Fulgentius of Ecija, Saint Florentina of Cartagena, and Saint Leander of Seville, who raised him after their father’s death. Isidore received his elementary education in the Cathedral school of Seville. In this institution, which was the first of its kind in Spain, the trivium and quadrivium were taught by a body of learned men, among whom was the archbishop, Leander. With such attentiveness, he applies himself to studies and in a remarkably short time mastered Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Priest. He Helped his brother Leander, archbishop of Seville, in the conversion the Visigoth Arians. Hermit.
Archbishop of Seville c.601, succeeding his brother to the position. Teacher, founder, reformer. Required seminaries in every diocese, and wrote a rule for religious orders. Prolific writer whose works include a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a history of Goths, and a history of the world beginning with creation. Completed the Mozarabic liturgy which is still in use in Toledo, Spain. Presided at the Second Council of Seville, and the Fourth Council of Toledo. Introduced the works of Aristotle to Spain.
Like Leander, he played a prominent role in the Councils of Toledo and Seville.
Proclaimed Doctor of the Church by Pope Benedict XIV in 1722, and became the leading candidate for patron of computer users and the internet in 1999.
Synod of Cyprus (634 AD) and monothelitism;
The Synod in Cyprus in 634 AD is a synod that approves Monothelitism, It is a synod that was hosted by Archbishop Arkadios II and with additional representatives from Pope Honorius, to this end, Sergius who promulgated Monothelitism, the faith that Jesus Christ had two natures but one will also sent his archdeacon Peter to a synod in Cyprus in 634,
The anti-Monothelite side in Jerusalem, championed by Maximus the Confessor and Sophronius, sent to this synod Anastasius pupil of Maximus, George of Reshaina pupil of Sophronius and two of George's own pupils, and also eight bishops from Palestine.
Monothelitism is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine, that formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629 AD. Specifically, Monothelitism teaches that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will. This is contrary to the orthodox Christology that Jesus Christ has two wills (human and divine) corresponding to his two natures. Monothelitism is a development of the Monophysite position in the Christological debates.
Heraclius sided with Monothelism and issued an Edict known as Ecthesis to all the metropolitan see.
It enjoyed considerable support in the 7th century before being rejected as heretical.
Emperor Heraclius and his Ecthesis (638 AD)
Flavius Heraclius was a Byzantine Emperor of Armenian origin, who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire for over thirty years, from October 5, 610 to February 11, 641. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, the viceregal Exarch of Africa, successfully led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius' reign was marked by several military campaigns, and he was remembered for his battles against the Sassanian Persian king Khosrau Parvez, and as the first of the Byzantine emperors to engage the Muslims. At his request Pope John IV (640-642) sent Christian teachers and missionaries to the Dalmatia, newly Croatian Provinces settled by Porga, and his clan who practiced Slavic paganism. He abandoned the use of Latin in official documents, further Hellenising the Empire.
Heraclius in regards to Monothelitism issue an edit, called the Ecthesis. In his modification, the question of the energy of Christ was not relevant. Instead, it promoted the belief that while Christ possessed two natures, he had only a single will. This notion of Monotheletism, the Doctrine of the Single Will as proscribed in the Ecthesis was sent to all four eastern metropolitan sees. A copy was posted in the narthex of Hagia Sophia, and when Sergius died in December 638, it looked as if Heraclius might actually achieve his goal, with the eastern patriarchs agreeing to the formula, and gaining many adherents across the east, including Cyrus of Alexandria and Arkadios II of Cyprus.
But during 638 in Rome, Pope Honorius I who had seemed to support monothelitism died. His successor Pope Severinus condemned the Ecthesis outright, and so was forbidden his seat until 640. His successor Pope John IV also rejected the doctrine completely, leading to a major schism between the eastern and western halves of the Catholic Church. When news reach Heraclius of the Pope’s condemnation, he was already old and ill, and the news only hastened his death, declaring with his dying breath that the controversy was all due to Sergius, and that the Patriarch had pressured him to give his unwilling approval to the Ecthesis.
This was the final attempt to win over the non-Chalcedonians to the Catholic Church by means of a theological compromise
The Lateran Council of 649 condemned ecthesis. Emperor Constans ordered the abduction and trials of Pope Martin I and Maximus the Confessor. The persecutions of the zealous prosecutors only ended with the death of Constans in 668, while Monothelitism was officially condemned at the Third Council of Constantinople (the Sixth Ecumenical Council, 680-681) in favor of Dyothelitism, which put to rest the issue of the ecthesis.
Maximus tortured, exiled (662 AD)
Maximus the Confessor and Theologian from about 640 became a determined opponent of Monothelitism, the heretical teaching that Jesus Christ had only one will. In this, he followed the example of St. Sophronius of Jerusalem, who was the first to combat this heresy starting in 634.
Maximus supported the Orthodoxy of Rome on this matter and is said to have exclaimed: "I have the faith of the Latins, but the language of the Greeks." He argued for Dyothelitism, the Orthodox teaching that Jesus Christ possessed two wills (one divine and one human), rather than the one will posited by Monothelitism.
After Pyrrhus, the temporarily deposed Monothelite Patriarch of Constantinople, had declared his defeat in a dispute at Carthage (645), Maximus obtained the heresy's condemnation at several local synods in Africa, and also worked to have it condemned at the Lateran Council of 649. He was brought to Constantinople in 653, pressured to adhere to the Typos of Emperor Constans II. Refusing to do so, he was exiled to Thrace. (Pope St. Martin of Rome was tried around the same time in Constantinople, and thus deposed and exiled to Crimea.)
In 661 Maximus again was brought to the imperial capital and questioned; while there, he had his tongue uprooted and his right hand cut off (to prevent him from preaching or writing the true faith), and then was again exiled to the Caucasus, but died shortly thereafter.
Ultimately, Maximus was exonerated by the Sixth Ecumenical Council and recognized as a Father of the Church.
Honorius I (625-38)
Pope Honorius I from 625 to 638 C.E. His papacy was successful in terms of missionary and administrative matters, but created controversy because of his sympathy with Monothelitism, a doctrine which was later condemned as heresy. Monothelitism held that Christ had two natures (divine and human) but only one will (divine). It was apparently attractive to Honorius because it represented, for him, a middle ground between Monophysitism (which taught that Christ's human nature was subsumed by his divinity) and Nestorianism (which taught that Christ's divine nature was distinct from his character as a human being). He died October 12, 638.
After his death, Honorious himself was named as a heretic at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680. His condemnation later raised serious questions at the First Vatic an Council of 1870 when the doctrine of papal infallibility became an official teaching of the Roman Church.
Pope Severinus was consecrated on May 28, 640, and died August 2, 640. Severinus, a Roman and the son of Abienus, was elected as usual on the third day after the death of his predecessor, and envoys were at once sent to Constantinople to obtain the confirmation of his election (October, 638). But the emperor, instead of granting the confirmation, ordered Severinus to sign his Ecthesis, a Monothelite profession of faith. This the pope-elect refused to do, and the Exarch Isaac, in order to force him to compliance, plundered the Lateran Palace. All was in vain; Severinus stood firm. Meanwhile his envoys at Constantinople, though refusing to sign any heretical documents and deprecating violence in matters of faith, behaved with great tact, and finally secured the imperial confirmation.
During his brief reign he built the apse of old St. Peter's in which church he was buried.
John IV (640-42)
Pope John IV was elected pope, after a four-month sede vacante, December 24, 640. At the time of his election he was archdeacon of the Roman Church, an important role in governing the see. As John's consecration (on December 24) followed very soon after his election, it is supposed that the papal elections were being confirmed by the Exarch of Ravenna rather than by the Emperor in Constantinople.
Pope John IV acted forcefully against the heresy of Monotheletism and tried to defend the reputation of Pope Honorius I, the pope who was largely responsible for the spread of Monotheletism. Honorius, he declared, “in speaking of one will in Jesus, only meant to assert that there were not two contrary wills in Him”.
He also had to act against Pelagianism, a new heresy which was spreading in the Irish Church. He died October 12, 642 was buried at the Basilica of St Peter
Theodore I (642-49)
Pope Theodore I was pope from November 24, 642 - May 14, 649, His election was supported by the Exarch and he was installed on November 24, 642, succeeding the short reign of Pope John IV. Pope Theodore I was one of Greek popes, although he was born in Jerusalem. He is primarily known for his continued struggle against the heretical Monothelites.
St. Martin I (649-55) (exiled)
Martin I was highly respected for his learning and one of his first acts as pope was to convene a synod at the Lateran palace to address the Monothelite controversy. At this time the Monothelite doctrines and followers were all condemned. Among those condemned were people with a great deal of power and influence in Constantinople - as a result, emperor Constans II ordered Martin arrested and sent back to Constantinople as a prisoner.
There Martin suffered through imprisonment and public humiliation, only to be exiled to the Crimea in 655. Although the Western Church abandoned him during his trial, he was later honored and became the last pope to be declared a martyr.
St. Eugene I (655-57)
Vicar for Pope Saint Martin I during his exile. Elected pope in 654. The reign of Pope Eugene I was distinguished by his great deference towards the secular ruling powers. He only ascended to the papal throne after emperor Constans exiled his predecessor, Pope Martin I He opposed the heretical Monothelite Byzantine emperor; in return, the emperor threatened to roast the pope alive. But the Moslems did not give Emperor Constans a chance, he had his hands full fighting the men of Islam, who were hammering relentlessly on the empire's bastions. Pope Saint Martin I He Consecrated 21 bishops during his papacy.
St. Vitalian (657-72)
Pope Vitalian's reign was most concerned with trying to achieve a political and religious reconciliation between Rome and Constantinople over the dispute about Monotheletism. He was not successful, so the conflict continued to divide East and West.
In the monothelite controversy then raging he acted with cautious reserve, refraining at least from express condemnation of the Typus of Constans II. The chief episode in his uneventful pontificate was the visit of Constans to Rome; the pope received him "almost with religious honours," a deference which he requited by stripping all the brazen ornaments of the city--even to the tiles of the Pantheon--and sending them to Constantinople. Archbishop Theodore was sent to Canterbury by Vitalian.
Archbishop Maurus of Ravenna (648-71), the Archbishop of Ravenna broke away from Rome dependence and Emperor Constans II sided with the archbishop and issued an edict removing the Archbishop of Ravenna from the patriarchal jurisdiction of Rome, and ordained that the former should receive the pallium from the emperor.
It was not until the reign of Pope Leo II (682-83) that the independence of the See of Ravenna was suppressed: Emperor Constantine IV repealed the edict of Constans and confirmed the ancient rights of the Roman See over the See of Ravenna.
Pope Vitalian was successful in improving relations with England, where the Anglo-Saxon and British clergies were divided regarding various ecclesiastical customs.
Vitalian was considered a firm ruler of the Church, one who preserved discipline. He died January 27, 672. Venerated as a saint, his feast is kept on that date.
Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
Adeodatus II or Deodatus II reigned as pope from April 11, 672 to June 17, 676. Born in Rome, he became a Benedictine and was a monk of the Roman cloister of St Erasmus on the Caelian Hill. He was active in improving monastic discipline, and in the repression of Monothelitism, and gave Venice the right to choose the doge itself.
Pope Adeodatus II was already an elderly man when he was elected pope and, even though he reigned for four years, not a great deal was accomplished during his pontifficate. He did reaffirm the orthodox doctrine that Christ had two wills (human and divine) rather than just one, the Monothelite heresy which had received strong support from political and religious leaders in the imperial capitol of Constantinople (including Constantine I, patriarch of Constantinople).
Pope Donus was pope from November 2, 676 to April 11, 678. He was the son of a Roman named Mauricius. Not much is known about Pope Donus, but according to the Liber Pontificalis he was reasponsible for embarking on a number of constructoin and repair projects both in and around Rome. Another accomplishment he is known for is for having convinced the archbishop of Ravenna to cease attempts to break away and become completely independent in terms of governance and appointment of bishops.
St. Agatho (678-81)
Pope Agatho was finally able to settle the controversy over Monotheletism with Emperor Constantine IV at the Third Council of Constantinople, which met from 680 through 681. This greatly imporved relations between the East and West, something demonstrated by the fact that over the course of the following 16 popes, only four would come from Rome - the rest would be Syrian, Greek or Sicilian.
Agatho also undertook negotiations between the Holy See and Constantine, concerning the relations of the Byzantine Court to papal elections. Constantine promised Agatho to abolish or reduce the tax that the popes had had to pay to the imperial treasury on their consecration.
He is venerated as a saint by both Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox. His feast day among Roman Catholics is on January 10. The Eastern Orthodox commemorate him on February 20
St. Leo II (682-83)
Pope Saint Leo II was Pope from August 17, 682 to June 28, 683. He was a Sicilian by birth.Though elected pope a few days after the death of St. Agatho (January 10, 681), he was not consecrated till after the lapse of a year and seven months (August 17, 682). Leo was known as an eloquent preacher who was interested in music, and noted for his charity to the poor
The most important historical aspect of Leo II's reign as pope seem to be his reaffirmation of the condemnation of Pope Honorius I for his position in the Monothelite controversy. It is important to note that Honorius was not accused of heresy in this - instead, he was simply accused of being too permissive with regard to the heresies of others.
Also, Leo put an end to the attempts of the Ravenna archbishops to get away from the control of the Bishop of Rome. Emperor Constantine revoked the decree of his father Constans in favour of Ravenna. The pope sweetened the deal for the Ravenna bishops by abolishing the tax it had been customary for them to pay when they received the pallium.
St. Benedict II (684-85)
Pope Saint Benedict II was pope from 684 to 685 Pope Benedict II had to wait an entire year after his actual election before he received official approval from the emperor. Because of this, he was able to get the emperor to agree to allow the imperial exarach in Ravenna to approve of papal consecrations in order to shorten the time involved.
According to Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum, he obtained from the Emperor a decree which either abolished imperial confirmations altogether or made them obtainable from the Exarch of Ravenna. This gave the power of confirmations of papal nominations directly to the Church and the people of Rome.
John V (685-86)
Pope John V was pope from July 685 to August 2, 686. John V was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy allowed to be consecrated by the Byzantine emperor without prior consent, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the empire.
To help to suppress Monothelitism, he endeavoured to secure the subscriptions of the bishops of Hispania to the decrees of the Third Council of Constantinople, of 678, and to bring about the submission to the decrees of Macarius, the deposed bishop of Antioch.
Pope Conon was Pope from October 21, 686 until his death in Rome Conon was a very elderly man when elected pope. He seems to have been one of those popes who is chosen as a "compromise" candidate that everyone could agree on because he was too old to do much, effectively given the electors a break before having to make a more substantive and long-term choice. His term as pope didn't allow the many rifts in the church to heal - he didn't cause more damage, but he was also unable to forge any compromises himelf.
He died September 21, 687 and was buried in the Patriarchal Basilica of St. Peter.
St. Sergius I (687-701)
Pope Sergius I was Pope from 687-701. Selected to end a schism between Antipope Paschal and Antipope Theodore, Sergius I ended the last disputed sede vacante of the Byzantine Papacy.
His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. As a result of the dispute Justinian II ordered Sergius I's abduction (as his predecessor Constans II had done with Pope Martin I), but with the assistance of the exarch of Ravenna, Sergius I was able to avoid trial in Constantinople. About the Quinisext Council Pope Sergius I had declared that he would rather die than subscribe to the council.
In a symbolically important step, Sergius I declared support for the chant "Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us" at the breaking of the Host during Mass, and restored the damaged facade mosaic in St. Peter's atrium that depicted the Worship of the Lamb; the depiction of Christ as lamb had been prohibited by the Council.
Sergius died on September 8, 701
John VI (701-05)
Pope John VI was a Greek pope from Ephesus who reigned during the Byzantine Papacy from October 30, 701 to January 11, 705. His papacy was noted for military and political breakthroughs on the Italian peninsula. He succeeded to the papal chair two months after the death of Pope Sergius I, and his election occurred after a vacancy of less than seven weeks.
Pope John VI isn't known for much except that he had to try and maintain a delicate balance between the power of the emperor in Constantinople and Italian leaders who were resisting imperial rule. He ended up having to spend great quantities of money on bribes to keep various armies from invading and looting Rome during these conflicts.
John VII (705-07)
Pope John VII was the first pope to have been the son of an imperial official - these imperial ties seem to have been a principle reason why John was able to keep from angering the imperial officials at Constantinople. Although he did not do it always, he did show a great willingness to defer to imperial demands and Byzantine policy - for example, when it came to questions of how churches should be built and decorated. He would, in fact, become known for his building projects and for being a patron of the arts.
John VII had good relations with the Lombards, who then ruled much of Italy. However, his relations with Justinian II, the Byzantine Emperor, were far from smooth. Papal relations with Byzantium had soured over the Quinisext or Trullan council of 692. Scholarly debate contests John VII's stance on the Canons. He did not ratify the Canons, which were deeply unpopular in Italy. Nonetheless, he was criticized, most unusually, by the Liber Pontificalis for not signing them:
Pope Sisinnius was the eighty-seventh Pope and remained in office for about three weeks in 708. A Syrian by birth, Sisinnius's father's name was John.
Sisinnius was selected as pope during the Byzantine Papacy. He succeeded Pope John VII after a sede vacante of three months. He was consecrated around January 15, 708.
He was so afflicted with gout that he was unable even to feed himself, he is nevertheless said to have been a man of strong character, and to have been able to take thought for the good of the city. Among his few acts as pope was the consecration of a bishop for Corsica. He also ordered "that lime be burned in order to restore portions" of the walls of Rome. The restoration of the walls planned by Sisinnius was carried out by Pope Gregory II.
Sisinnius was buried in Old St. Peter's Basilica. He was succeeded less than two months later by Pope Constantine. Constantine, also Syrian by birth, was probably the brother of Sisinnius. Pope Sininnus died February 4, 708
Pope Constantine was pope from 708 to 715. Constantine was Syrian by birth, fluent in the Greek language, and immersed in Eastern rituals and practices. He was selected as one of the last popes of the Byzantine Papacy, the defining moment of Constantine's pontificate was his 710/711 visit to Constantinople where he compromised with Justinian II on the Trullan canons of the Quinisext Council. Constantine was the last pope to visit Constantinople until Pope Paul VI did again in 1967
Pope Constantine managed to heal a long-standing rift between East and West when he met Emperor Justinian II at Nicomedia in 711. Here the emperor kissed the pope's foot as a sign of obedience and Constantine administered communion to Jusitinian as a sign of his readmission to the Church.
The new emperor, Philippikos Bardanes was an adherent of Monothelitism, rejected the arrangements of the Third Council of Constantinople, and demanded Constantine's support of the view that Christ had only one will. In 712, Constantine rejected Philippikos's demand to revive Monothelitism; he further refused to receive an imperial portrait or coins with the emperor's image, and also refused to commemorate the emperor in Mass. As the exarch (the imperial representative in Italy) attempted to enforce the imperial presence there were clashes, but Constantine was able to calm the situation.
Philippus was overthrown in June 713, and his successor, Anastasius II had exarch Scholasticus deliver to the Pope a letter affirming his support for the Sixth General Council.
Pope Constantine died April 9, 715
St. Gregory II (715-31)
Gregory II has become known for a variety of political successes and defeats. On the positive side, he managed to stave off Lombard encroachments on Rome by buying them off with 30 pounds of gold. He then used the relatively peaceful time to expand the reach of Christianity in German lands to the north. On the negative side, he was forced to excommunicate Byzantine emperor Leo III because of his attempts to impose massive taxes on Italy.
Leo was also an Iconoclast, a "breaker of images" who opposed the presence of images and statues during Christian worship. He ordered all such images destroyed and tried to force Gregory to agree, but Gregory refused and Italy came to his defense. This in turn led to many years of civil wars and revolts between East and West.
- St. Isidore of Seville
- Maximus the Confessor
- Honorius I
- Lives of Popes http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=991
- Liber Pontificalis